Kano is a city in Nigeria and the capital of Kano Statein Northern Nigeria, in the Sahelian geographic region south of the Sahara. Its metropolitan population makes it the second largest city in Nigeria. The Kano urban area covers 137 km2and comprises six local government areas (LGAs)— Kano Municipal, Fagge, Dala, Gwale, Tarauniand Nassarawa— with a population of 2,163,225 at the 2006 Nigerian census. The metropolitan area covers 499 km2and comprises eight LGAs — the six mentioned above plus Ungogo and Kumbotso— with a population of 2,828,861 at the 2006 Nigerian census.
The principal inhabitants of the city are the Hausa people. As in most parts of northern Nigeria, the Hausa language is widely spoken in Kano. The city is the capital of the Kano Emirate. The current emir, Sanusi Lamido Sanusi, was throned on 8 June 2014 after the death of late Alhaji Ado Bayero, the thirtienth emir of kano emirate on Friday, 6 June 2014. The city’s Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport, the main airport serving northern Nigeria, was named after politician Aminu Kano.
HISTORY OF KANO
In the 7th century, Dala Hill, a residual hill in Kano, was the site of a hunting and gathering community that engaged in iron work; it is unknown whether these were Hausa people or speakers of Niger–Congo languages. [ 2 ]Kano was originally known as Dala, after the hill, and was referred to as such as late as the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th by Bornoan sources. [ 3 ]
The Kano Chronicleidentifies Barbushe, a priest of a Dala Hill spirit, as the city’s first settler. (Elizabeth Isichei notes that the description of Barbushe is similar to those of Sao people. [ 4 ]) While small chiefdoms were previously present in the area, according to the Kano Chronicle, Bagauda, a grandson of the mythical hero Bayajidda, [ 5 ]became the first king of Kano in 999, reigning until 1063. [ 6 ] [ 7 ]His grandson Gijimasu(1095–1134), the third king, began building city walls at the foot of Dala Hill. His own son, Tsaraki(1136–1194), the fifth king, completed them during his reign. [ 7 ]
Gate to the Gidan Rumfain 2005
In the 12th century Ali Yajias King of Kano renounced his allegiance to the cult of Tsumburbura, accepted Islam and proclaimed the Sultanate that was to last until its fall in the 19th century. The reign of Yajiensued an era of expansionism that saw Kano becoming the capital of a pseudo Habe Empire.
In 1463 Muhammad Rumfa(reigned 1463- 1499) ascended the throne. During his reign, political pressure from the rising Songhai Empireforced him to take Auwa, the daughter of Askiyah the Greatas his wife. She was to later become the first female Madaki of Kano. Rumfareformed the city, expanded the Sahelian Gidan Rumfa(Emir’s Palace), and played a role in the further Islamization of the city, [ 8 ]as he urged prominent residents to convert. [ 9 ]The Kano Chronicle attributes a total of twelve “innovations” to Rumfa. [ 10 ]
According to the Kano Chronicle, the thirty-seventh Sarkin Kano ( King of Kano) was Mohammed Sharef(1703–1731). His successor, Kumbari dan Sharefa(1731–1743), engaged in major battles with Sokoto.
BRITISH RULE AND COLONIZATION
In March, 1903 after a scanty resistance, the Fort of Kano was captured by the British, It quickly replaced Lokojaas the administrative centre of Northern Nigeria. It was replaced as the centre of government by Zungeruand later Kadunaand only regained administrative significance with the creation of Kano State following Nigerian independence.
From 1913 to 1914, as the peanutbusiness was expanding, Kano suffered a major drought, which caused a famine. [ 14 ]Other famines during British rule occurred in 1908, 1920, 1927, 1943, 1951, 1956, and 1958. [ 12 ]
By 1922, groundnut trader Alhassan Dantatahad become the richest businessman in Kano, surpassing fellow merchants Umaru Sharubutu Kokiand Maikano Agogo. [ 15 ]
In May 1953, an inter-ethnic riot arose due to southern newspapers misreporting on the nature of a disagreement between northern and southern politicians in the House of Representatives. [ 16 ]Thousands of Nigerians of southern origin died as a result of the riot.