The Mugbamugba War- Second Attempt of a Failed Expulsion

Fulani Warriors

After Are-Ona-Kakanfo Afonja was murdered and Ilorin was seized by the Fulani Jamma, Alimi (the son of Abdul Salam) became the first Fulani ruler of Ilorin not with the title of Oba or Baale but Emir which solidifies that the total control of Ilorin, a Yoruba town had gone to the Fuanis. In a bid to restore the control of Ilorin in the hands of the Yorubas, Toyeje, the Baale of Ogbomoso and the new Are-Ona-Kakanfo, led an attack on Ilorin to expel the Fulanis, but unfortunately, he failed drastically. After sometime, between the months of March and April (when locus fruit i.e Igba was ripe for harvest), another attempt was made by the Yorubas to chase the intruding Fulanis out of Ilorin but failed again. Continue reading The Mugbamugba War- Second Attempt of a Failed Expulsion

List of Radio Stations in Lagos State (With Frequencies)

Radio Stations in Nigeria

Below is the list of radio stations in Lagos state with frequencies and locations. [Updates are welcomed, kindly add new radio station(s) in the comment box below]

* 88.9 – Brilla FM – Sports Broadcast only

* 89.7 – Eko FM, Ikeja

* 90.9 – Top Radio FM

* 92.3 – Inspiration FM

* 93.7 – Rhythm FM

* 95.1 – Wazobia FM

* 92.9 – Bond FM

* 95.7 – LASU Radio (Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos) Continue reading List of Radio Stations in Lagos State (With Frequencies)

Definition, Characteristics and Types of Sovereignty

Government Studies on OldNaija

Definition of Sovereignty

What is Sovereignty?
Sovereignty is derived from the Latin word “Superanus” which means supreme or paramount.

Sovereignty is the supreme authority and power of a state to make and enforce laws/policies within its area of jurisdiction. The state exercise its power and authority in any way it can [either De facto or De Jure (they will be explained below)] without any means of external interference or control. The French philosopher, Jean Bodin (1530-1590), propounded the idea of sovereignty his publication of “The Republic” in 1576.

 

Continue reading Definition, Characteristics and Types of Sovereignty

Public Holidays in Nigeria

Public holidays in Nigeria

Below is the list of public holidays observed in Nigeria.

* New Year’s Day- 1 January

* Workers’ Day- 1 May

* Children’s Day- 27 May

* Democracy Day- 29 May

* Independence Day- 1 October

* Christmas Day- 25 December Continue reading Public Holidays in Nigeria

List Of Radio Stations In Oyo State (With Frequencies And Location)

Radio Stations in Nigeria

Below is the list of Radio stations in Oyo State and her capital, Ibadan. Frequencies and location included.

  • 89.1 – Lead City University Campus Radio FM, Ibadan – Lagos Toll Gate, Ibadan
  • 90.1 – Space FM, 136, Liberty Road, Ibadan (1st Trilingual Radio Station in Nigeria)
  • 91.5 – Star FM, Secretariat, Ibadan
  • 92.1 – Ajilete FM, Gambari, Ogbomoso
  • 92.5 – Impact Business Radio, Akobo, Ibadan (Nigeria’s first Business Radio)
  • 92.9 – Royal Root FM, Jericho Area, Ibadan
  • 93.5 – Premier FM (FRCN), Dugbe, Ibadan

Continue reading List Of Radio Stations In Oyo State (With Frequencies And Location)

President Babangida’s Annulment Speech of June 12,1993 Presidential Election

Ibrahim Babangida
President Ibrahim Babangida

Here is President Ibrahim Babangida’s speech annulling the presidential election of June 12, 1993.

 

Fellow Nigerians:

I address you today with a deep sense of world history and particularly of the history of our great country. In the aftermath of the recently annulled Presidential Election, I feel, as I believe you yourself feel, a profound sense of disappointment at the outcome of our last efforts at laying the foundation of a viable democratic system of government in Nigeria.

I therefore wish, on behalf of myself and members of the National Defence and Security Council and indeed of my entire administration, to feel with my fellow countrymen and women for the cancellation of the election. It was a rather disappointing experience in the course of carrying through the last election of the transition to civil rule programme.

Nigeria has come a long way since this administration assumed power and leadership about eight years ago. In the attempt to grapple with the critical and monumental problems and challenges of National existence and social progress, this administration inaugurated and pursued sound and justifiable policies and programmes of reform. Continue reading President Babangida’s Annulment Speech of June 12,1993 Presidential Election

Real Account Of The June 12 1993 Presidential Election

June 12 1993 Presidential Election

Here we go behind the historic presidential election of June 12, 1993 in Nigeria. This election was considered to be the freest and fairest election in the annals of Nigerian history. What led to this election? What was this election all about? What were the consequences of this election? Below are answers to these worth-asking questions.

On the 31st of December, 1983, the military aborted the second attempt of Alahji Sheu Shagari to run a democratic government due to gross electoral misconducts that happened during the election. The military seized the power in a bloodless coup and installed Major-General Mohammadu Buhari as the Head of State and the Commander-In-Chief of the armed forces. Realizing Buhari’s administration had no intention of returning power to the democratic government, Gen. Ibrahim Babangida, the Chief of Army Staff to Maj.-Gen. Buhari, seized the power in a bloodless coup on the 27th of August, 1985 and instantly began to plan the transition to civil rule programme. Continue reading Real Account Of The June 12 1993 Presidential Election

Pre-Colonial Political System in Igboland

Igbo pre-colonial administration

The Igbo pre-colonial political system was described by many scholars as an ‘acephalous political system‘ which can be translated as ‘a leaderless or chiefless political system’. This term is suitable for describing the Igbo pre-colonial political system because it was decentralized and based on village and direct democracy where everyone in the village has the authority to contribute in decision making. Each Igbo village was seen as a political unit inhabited by related families who were bounded by common beliefs and origin. Each family head in the village held the ‘Ofo‘ title and altogether formed the council of elders. The council of elders presided over important issues on the village’s welfare, safety, development and so on. Among the council of elders, one was recognized as the most senior to others. He was the ‘Okpara‘. He could call for and adjourn a meeting, and could also give judgements as well.  Continue reading Pre-Colonial Political System in Igboland

The Reign of Bashorun Gaa in Old Oyo Empire

Map of Old Oyo Kingdom

When Alaafin Labisi took over the throne from the previous (late) Alaafin, Onisile, in 1750, he appointed Gaa as his Bashorun, the head of Oyomesi (7 hereditary kingmakers). During Alaafin Labisi’s reign, the old Oyo Empire, also known as Oyo-Ile, became so powerful and earned the respect of other kingdoms in Yorubaland. History has it in profile that Alaafin Labisi collected tributes from faraway kingdoms of Dahomey, Popo and Ashanti even though his reign was very short, and more than half of the kingdoms and villages in Yorubaland (over 6000) fell under the political umbrella of Oyo-Ile. This thus made the old Oyo Empire a political and military colossus in Yorubaland.

Continue reading The Reign of Bashorun Gaa in Old Oyo Empire

Concepts of Government- Legitimacy

Government Studies on OldNaija

Definition of Legitimacy

The word legitimacy is coined from the Latin word “legitimus” which means according to law. Therefore, legitimacy can be defined as the recognition and acceptance which the citizens give their leaders to rule them. For a government to rule successfully in a state, it must enjoy the full support and popular acceptance of the electorates or citizens. This is the reason why legitimacy/ political legitimacy remain an important features of a government. A legitimate government comes to power through the consent of the people by voting it in. Many people believe that legitimacy cannot be found in a coercive government (military government). However, the military can enjoy legitimacy by making popular government policies. In a legitimate government, obedience is not based on fear of sanctions but on loyalty to the ruler and the state.

Continue reading Concepts of Government- Legitimacy

Characteristics And Functions Of Government

 

Below are the major Characteristics/Features and Functions of the Government in a State

Characteristics of Government

1. Constitution– This is a major characteristic of a government. The government make a set of agreed rules which guides it in the administration of the state.

2. Periodic Change– A government is meant to change after a specific period of time. No government is permanent, particularly a democratic or elective government which changes through periodic election.

3. Legitimacy– A government must enjoy the support of the people.

4. Revenue– The government make revenue in different ways to enhance its administration

5. Political Power– The government must posses political power which is a tool of rooting orderliness in a state. Continue reading Characteristics And Functions Of Government

Ministers in Nigeria And Their Portfolios (Jonathan’s Administration- July 2011)

Goodluck Jonathan Ministers

Here is the list of ministers during the administration of President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan.

 

MINISTRYMINISTERSTATE

* Agric and Natural Resources (State)- Bukar Tijani- Borno

* Attorney General- Justice Mohammed Bello Adoke- Kogi

* Aviation- Stella Oduah-Ogiemwonyi- Anambra

* Defence Bello H. Mohammed- Kebbi

* Defence (State)Erelu Olusola Obada- Osun

* Education- Ruqayyatu Rufai- Jigawa

*FCT (State)- Olajumoke Akinjide-Oyo

* Federal Capital Territory- Bala Mohammed- Bauchi

* Finance- Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala- Abia

* Finance (State)- Yerima Lawal Ngama- Yobe

* Foreign Affairs- Olugbenga Ashiru- Ogun

* Foreign Affairs (State)- Viola Onwuliri- Imo

* Health- Onyebuchi Chukwu- Ebonyi

*Information- Labaran Maku- Nasarawa

* Communication Technology- Mrs. Omobola Johnson- Ondo

* Interior- Comrade Abba Moro- Benue

* Labour- Emeka Wogu- Abia

* Mines and Steel Development- Mohammed Musa Sada- Katsina

* National Planning- Shamsudeen Usman- Kano

* Niger Delta Affairs- Godsday Orubebe- Delta

* Niger Delta Affairs (State)- Zainab Ibrahim Kuchi- Niger

* Petroleum- Diezani Alison-Madueke- Bayelsa

* Police Affairs- Caleb Olubolade- Ekiti

* Power- Chinedu Nebo took over from Bart Nnaji- Enugu

* Science and Technology- Ita Okon Bassey Ewa- Akwa Ibom

* Sports- Yusuf Sulaiman- Sokoto

* Trade and Investment- Olusegun O. Aganga- Lagos

* Trade and Investment (State)- Samuel Ioraer Ortom- Benue

* Transport- Idris A.Umar- Gombe

* Women Affairs- Zainab Maina- Adamawa

* Works- Mike Onolememen- Edo

* Works (State)- Bashir Yugudu- Zamfara

* Youth Development- Bolaji Abdullahi- Kwara

 

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Ministers in Nigeria And Their Portfolios (Buhari’s Administration- 2015)

Muhammadu Buhari's Ministers

Below is the list of the newly inaugurated ministers (and their portfolios) of President Muhammadu Buhari’s administration (2015)

1. Abdulrahman Dambazau (Kano)- Minister of Interior

2. Kayode Fayemi (Ekiti)- Minister of Solid Minerals

3. Adamu Adamu (Bauchi)- Minister of Education

4. Barr. Adebayo Shittu (Oyo)- Minister of Communication

5. Chris Ngige (Anambra)- Minister of Labour & Employment

6. Sen Hadi Sirika (Katsina)- Minister of State, Aviation

7. Prof Anthony Onwuka (Imo)- Minister of State, Education

8. Solomon Dalong (Plateau)- Minister for Youth and Sports

9. Abubakar Malami (Kebbi)- Minister of Justice & Attorney-General

10. Aisha Alhassan (Taraba)- Minister of Women Affairs

11. Babatunde Fashola (Lagos)- Minister of Power, Works and Housing

12. Suleiman Adamu (Jigawa)- Minister of Water Resources

13. Kemi Adeosun (Ogun)- Minister of Finance

14. Ibe Kachikwu (Delta)- Minister of State, Petroleum

15. Osagie Ehanire (Edo)- Minister of State, Health

16. Audu Ogbeh (Benue)- Minister of Agriculture

17. Udo Udo Udoma (Akwa Ibom)- Minister of Budget & National Planning

18. Lai Mohammed (Kwara)- Minister of Information

19. Amina Mohammed (Gombe)- Minister of Environment

20. Ibrahim Usman Jibril (Nasarawa)- Minister of State, Environment

21. Hajia Khadija Bukar Ibrahim (Yobe)- Minister of State, Foreign Affairs

22. Cladius Omoleye Daramola (Ondo)- Minister of State, Niger Delta

23. Ogbonaya Onu (Ebonyi)- Minister of Science and Technology

24. Barr James Ocholi (Kogi)- Minister of State, Labour & Employment

25. Dan Ali (Zamfara)- Minister of Defence

26. Geoffrey Onyema (Enugu)- Minister of Foreign Affairs

27. Zainab Ahmed (Kaduna)- Minister of State Budget and National Planning

28. Okechukwu Enelamah (Abia)- Minister of Trade, Investment & Industry

29. Muhammadu Bello (Adamawa)- Minister of Federal Capital Territory

30. Heineken Lokpobiri (Bayelsa)- Minister of State, Agriculture

31. Aisha Abubakar (Sokoto)- Minister of State, Trade & Investment

32. Mustapha Baba Shehuri- (Bornu) Minister of State, Power

33. Rotimi Amaechi- (Rivers) Minister of Transportation

34. Pastor Usani Uguru (Cross River)- Minister of Niger Delta

35. Abubakar Bawa Bwari (Niger)- Minister of State, Solid Minerals

36. Isaac Adewole (Osun)- Minister of Health

***** President Muhammadu Buhari- Minister of Petroleum *****

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The Independence Speech of Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa on October 1st, 1960

Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa giving a speech on Independence day
Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa giving a speech on Nigeria’s Independence day

Below is the speech delivered by the Nigerian Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, during the celebration of Nigeria’s independence on October 1st 1960 at the Tafawa Balewa Square in Lagos.

 

“Today is Independence Day. The first of October 1960 is a date to which for two years every Nigerian has been eagerly looking forward. At last, our great day has arrived, and Nigeria is now indeed an independent sovereign nation. Continue reading The Independence Speech of Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa on October 1st, 1960

How the Independence of Nigeria was Celebrated on Saturday, 1st of October, 1960 [With Videos]

Video of independence celebration in Nigeria, 1960​

The atmosphere was filled with joy and anxiety as excited Nigerians stormed the Tafawa Balewa Square (TBS) in Lagos to partake in the celebration of the independence of Nigeria on Saturday, 1st of October, 1960. Amongst the crowd were students, cultural dancers, acrobats, masquerades and others who were all eager to paint the celebration red with their performances. Policemen stood in bands in different key places across the square to prevent or suppress any form of unwanted intrusion. It was a wonderful sight to behold. Continue reading How the Independence of Nigeria was Celebrated on Saturday, 1st of October, 1960 [With Videos]

Ila– Yoruba Tribal Mark

Yoruba Tribal Mark

Hundreds of years ago, the drawing of Ila (tribal/facial mark) was a common practice among the Yoruba tribe of Western Nigeria. Ila are special marks drawn on the face or body of an individual shortly after birth or during childhood. Those who have this marks are refered to as Okola. Continue reading Ila– Yoruba Tribal Mark

States in Nigeria and their Slogans

States in Nigeria

Here is a list of the 36 states in Nigeria and their slogans

STATESLOGAN

Abia State – God’s Own State

Adamawa State – Land of Beauty

Akwa Ibom State – Land of Promise

Anambra State – Light of the Nation Continue reading States in Nigeria and their Slogans

Mobile Networks in Nigeria and their Prefixes

mobile networks in nigeraIt should be noted that these prefixes cannot be wholly relied on anymore since Nigeria, in 2013, implemented the Mobile Number Portability (MNP) which can make mobile telephone users keep their telephone numbers when changing from one network provider to another. Continue reading Mobile Networks in Nigeria and their Prefixes

The Egba- Dahomey War (1851-1864)

Dahomen Women Warriors
Dahomen Women Warriors (Amazon Women)

The Egba-Dahomey war, as the name suggests, was a war that broke out between the two neighboring kingdoms of Egba and Dahomey (now the Republic of Benin) over territorial expansion caused by the quest of the latter to stabilize her economy. The Egba-Dahomey war was the third of the destructive wars that plagued the Yoruba nation in the nineteenth century, proceeding the Owu-Ife war: 1821-1828; and the 1840 Osogbo war. Continue reading The Egba- Dahomey War (1851-1864)

Obudu Cattle Ranch/ Mountain Resort

Obudu Cattle Ranch

Obudu Cattle Ranch/ Mountain Resort is located in Cross River state, along the Nigeria-Cameroon border in the south-eastern part of Nigeria. The ranch has a lot of tall and wonderful mountains laden with green vegetation which gives it the picture of a country side. The climatic condition of the Obudu ranch is the normal temperature an area with mountains should have.

Continue reading Obudu Cattle Ranch/ Mountain Resort

Olumo Rock, Abeokuta

Olumo Rock

Olumo rock, located in the ancient city of Abeokuta, the present capital of Ogun state, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Nigeria. The sedimentary rock which is about 137 metres high had for long stood as the pride of the Egba people who are the main inhabitant of the city of Abeokuta. Abeokuta which literary means ‘beneath the rock’ was recorded to have gotten its name from the Olumo rock. The rock served as a sanctuary and fortress for the Egba people during the inter-tribal wars that plagued Egbaland and the whole of Yorubaland in the 19th century. Continue reading Olumo Rock, Abeokuta

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

Tafawa Balewa

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa was born in 1912 to Yakubu Dan Zala and Fatima Inna in Bauchi, Nigeria. Tafawa Balewa had his elementary education at a Koranic school in Bauchi and later proceeded to Barewa College where he bagged his teaching certificate. Continue reading Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

Okomu National Park, Edo state

Okomu National Park

Okomu National Park, formally known as Okomu Widelife Sanctuary, is located in Ovia South-West Local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. The Park is the smallest of the seven national parks in Nigeria. The Okomu National Park serves as a good and suitable habitat for many endangered flora and fauna species. Continue reading Okomu National Park, Edo state

The Definitions of Government

Government Studies on OldNaija

 

The Three Definitions Of Government

*Government As An Institution Of The State

Government as an institution of the state can be defined as a “machinery” set up by the state, to keep the state organised, run its affairs and administer its various functions and duties.
The coming together of people to live in a society arouse the need to form a body (government) which will handle the administration of the society. If a state should exist without this kind of body (government), anarchy is said to be reigning in such a state. Continue reading The Definitions of Government

Bori Religion In Hausaland

Bori religious dance
Bori Dancer

Bori is a traditional religion of the Hausa people of northern Nigeria which involves animism, magic and spiritual possession. The Bori religion was widely practiced in the Hausa’s pre-Islamic era but began to wane as Islam was introduced into Hausaland. “Boorii” is a Hausa word for spiritual force which can be found in physical and/or inanimate objects.  Continue reading Bori Religion In Hausaland

Definition And Features of a State



What is a state? Or
What is the definition of a state?

“A state may be defined as a politically organised body of people inhabiting a defined geographical entity with an organized legitimate government”.
(Essential Government, C. C. Dibie, August 2008)

A state must be free from all forms of external control to exercise its sovereignty within its area of jurisdiction. It must be noted that Continue reading Definition And Features of a State

Merits And Demerits of Clifford Constitution of 1922

Click here to read the Clifford Constitution of 1922 and its features

Like every other constitution of a state, the Clifford Constitution has its advantages/merits and disadvantages/demerits.

Here are the merits of Clifford Constitution of 1922
Continue reading Merits And Demerits of Clifford Constitution of 1922

Governors of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)- Past and Present

image

Below is the list of past and present governors of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)

1. R. A. Fetoh 1958-1963

2. Alahji Mai Borno (1963-1967)

3. Dr. Clemet N. Isong (1967-1975)

Continue reading Governors of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)- Past and Present

The Ibadan All-Nigerian Constitutional Conference of 1950

Nigerian Map

On the 9th of January, 1950, delegates from the northern, eastern and western regions of Nigeria met as a body in Ibadan to discuss issues on the new constitution Sir Macpherson was drafting (Macpherson constitution of 1951). Continue reading The Ibadan All-Nigerian Constitutional Conference of 1950