Concepts of Government- Legitimacy

Government  studies

Definition of Legitimacy

The word legitimacy is coined from the latin word legitimus which means according to law. Therefore, legitimacy can be defined as the recognition and acceptance which the citizens give their leaders to rule them. For a government to rule successfully in a state, it must enjoy the full support and popular acceptance of the electorates or citizens. This is the reason why legitimacy/ political legitimacy remain an important features of a government. A legimate government comes to power through the consent of the people by voting it in. Many people believe that legitimacy cannot be found in a coercive government (military government). However, the military can enjoy legitimacy by making popular government policies. In a legitimate government, obedience is not based on fear of sanctions but on loyalty to the ruler and the state.

Factors That Determines Legitimacy

The following factors show the way by which a government can be a legitimate one.

1. Free and fair election- Election is the most common way of installing a government in power in a democratic state. If a government is installed with a free and fair election, such government will have the people’s mandate to govern them.

2. Good goverance- If the administration of the state is run by the government efficiently, effectively and constitutionally, such government will be recognised by the people. In other words, people tend to recognise a government that provides the basic needs of the people such as good roads, water, security and so on.

3. Good Leadership- A leader that posses good qualities and character will be supported and recognised by his people.

4. Economic Development- If the economic development of a state is on a high scale, people will accept and support the government.

5. Mass or Popular Participation- The more the citizens participates in the affairs of a state, the more the government earn recognition and support.

6. Customs and Tradition- Respect for the customs and traditions of the society can earn a government legitimacy.

Reference- C. C. Dibie; Essential Government For Senior Secondary Schools; 3rd edition; 2008; Ado Ekiti; Tonad Publishers

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Characteristics And Functions Of Government

Government  studies

Below are the major Characteristics/Features and Functions of the Government in a State

Characteristics of Government

1. Constitution- This is a major characteristic of a government. The government make a set of agreed rules which guides it in the administration of the state.

2. Periodic Change- A government is meant to change after a specific period of time. No government is permanent, particularly a democratic or elective government which changes through periodic election.

3. Legitimacy- A government must enjoy the support of the people.

4. Revenue- The government make revenue in different ways to enhance its administration

5. Political Power- The government must posses political power which is a tool of rooting orderliness in a state.

6. Universality of Government’s reach- The jurisdiction of the government must reach or extend to everyone within the state.

7. Public Institutions- The institutions comprising the government of a political society, differ from the other institutions within the society.

Functions Of Government

The government of a state owe allegiance to the state itself and its citizens as well. If a government fails to do its functions in a state, the citizens can request for the replacement of such government in as much Democracy is in practice.
Below are the functions/ duties of a government on a state.

1. Law Making

2. Military defence of the country

3. Provision of employment

4. Maintenance of law and order

5. Promotion of economic growth and development

6. Maintaining good relations with other sovereign states or countries (foreign diplomacy)

7. Protection of civil liberties

8. Protection of lives and properties

9. Administration of justice

10. Formulation and implementation of policies

11. Provision of social-welfare services

Reference- Essential Government For Senior Secondary Schools- C. C. Dibie

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Ministers in Nigeria And Their Portfolios (Jonathan’s Administration- July 2011)

Goodluck Jonathan Ministers

Here is the list of ministers during the administration of President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan.

 

MINISTRYMINISTERSTATE

* Agric and Natural Resources (State)- Bukar Tijani- Borno

* Attorney General- Justice Mohammed Bello Adoke- Kogi

* Aviation- Stella Oduah-Ogiemwonyi- Anambra

* Defence Bello H. Mohammed- Kebbi

* Defence (State)Erelu Olusola Obada- Osun

* Education- Ruqayyatu Rufai- Jigawa

*FCT (State)- Olajumoke Akinjide-Oyo

* Federal Capital Territory- Bala Mohammed- Bauchi

* Finance- Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala- Abia

* Finance (State)- Yerima Lawal Ngama- Yobe

* Foreign Affairs- Olugbenga Ashiru- Ogun

* Foreign Affairs (State)- Viola Onwuliri- Imo

* Health- Onyebuchi Chukwu- Ebonyi

*Information- Labaran Maku- Nasarawa

* Communication Technology- Mrs. Omobola Johnson- Ondo

* Interior- Comrade Abba Moro- Benue

* Labour- Emeka Wogu- Abia

* Mines and Steel Development- Mohammed Musa Sada- Katsina

* National Planning- Shamsudeen Usman- Kano

* Niger Delta Affairs- Godsday Orubebe- Delta

* Niger Delta Affairs (State)- Zainab Ibrahim Kuchi- Niger

* Petroleum- Diezani Alison-Madueke- Bayelsa

* Police Affairs- Caleb Olubolade- Ekiti

* Power- Chinedu Nebo took over from Bart Nnaji- Enugu

* Science and Technology- Ita Okon Bassey Ewa- Akwa Ibom

* Sports- Yusuf Sulaiman- Sokoto

* Trade and Investment- Olusegun O. Aganga- Lagos

* Trade and Investment (State)- Samuel Ioraer Ortom- Benue

* Transport- Idris A.Umar- Gombe

* Women Affairs- Zainab Maina- Adamawa

* Works- Mike Onolememen- Edo

* Works (State)- Bashir Yugudu- Zamfara

* Youth Development- Bolaji Abdullahi- Kwara

 

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Ministers in Nigeria And Their Portfolios (Buhari’s Administration- 2015)

Muhammadu Buhari's Ministers

Below is the list of the newly inaugurated ministers (and their portfolios) of President Muhammadu Buhari’s administration (2015)

1. Abdulrahman Dambazau (Kano)- Minister of Interior

2. Kayode Fayemi (Ekiti)- Minister of Solid Minerals

3. Adamu Adamu (Bauchi)- Minister of Education

4. Barr. Adebayo Shittu (Oyo)- Minister of Communication

5. Chris Ngige (Anambra)- Minister of Labour & Employment

6. Sen Hadi Sirika (Katsina)- Minister of State, Aviation

7. Prof Anthony Onwuka (Imo)- Minister of State, Education

8. Solomon Dalong (Plateau)- Minister for Youth and Sports

9. Abubakar Malami (Kebbi)- Minister of Justice & Attorney-General

10. Aisha Alhassan (Taraba)- Minister of Women Affairs

11. Babatunde Fashola (Lagos)- Minister of Power, Works and Housing

12. Suleiman Adamu (Jigawa)- Minister of Water Resources

13. Kemi Adeosun (Ogun)- Minister of Finance

14. Ibe Kachikwu (Delta)- Minister of State, Petroleum

15. Osagie Ehanire (Edo)- Minister of State, Health

16. Audu Ogbeh (Benue)- Minister of Agriculture

17. Udo Udo Udoma (Akwa Ibom)- Minister of Budget & National Planning

18. Lai Mohammed (Kwara)- Minister of Information

19. Amina Mohammed (Gombe)- Minister of Environment

20. Ibrahim Usman Jibril (Nasarawa)- Minister of State, Environment

21. Hajia Khadija Bukar Ibrahim (Yobe)- Minister of State, Foreign Affairs

22. Cladius Omoleye Daramola (Ondo)- Minister of State, Niger Delta

23. Ogbonaya Onu (Ebonyi)- Minister of Science and Technology

24. Barr James Ocholi (Kogi)- Minister of State, Labour & Employment

25. Dan Ali (Zamfara)- Minister of Defence

26. Geoffrey Onyema (Enugu)- Minister of Foreign Affairs

27. Zainab Ahmed (Kaduna)- Minister of State Budget and National Planning

28. Okechukwu Enelamah (Abia)- Minister of Trade, Investment & Industry

29. Muhammadu Bello (Adamawa)- Minister of Federal Capital Territory

30. Heineken Lokpobiri (Bayelsa)- Minister of State, Agriculture

31. Aisha Abubakar (Sokoto)- Minister of State, Trade & Investment

32. Mustapha Baba Shehuri- (Bornu) Minister of State, Power

33. Rotimi Amaechi- (Rivers) Minister of Transportation

34. Pastor Usani Uguru (Cross River)- Minister of Niger Delta

35. Abubakar Bawa Bwari (Niger)- Minister of State, Solid Minerals

36. Isaac Adewole (Osun)- Minister of Health

***** President Muhammadu Buhari- Minister of Petroleum *****

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The Independence Speech of Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa on October 1st, 1960

Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa giving a speech on Independence day
Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa giving a speech on Nigeria’s Independence day

Below is the speech delivered by the Nigerian Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, during the celebration of Nigeria’s independence on October 1st 1960 at the Tafawa Balewa Square in Lagos.

 

“Today is Independence Day. The first of October 1960 is a date to which for two years every Nigerian has been eagerly looking forward. At last, our great day has arrived, and Nigeria is now indeed an independent sovereign nation. Continue reading The Independence Speech of Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa on October 1st, 1960

How the Independence of Nigeria was Celebrated on Saturday, 1st of October, 1960 [With Videos]

Video of independence celebration in Nigeria, 1960​

The atmosphere was filled with joy and anxiety as excited Nigerians stormed the Tafawa Balewa Square (TBS) in Lagos to partake in the celebration of the independence of Nigeria on Saturday, 1st of October, 1960. Amongst the crowd were students, cultural dancers, acrobats, masquerades and others who were all eager to paint the celebration red with their performances. Policemen stood in bands in different key places across the square to prevent or suppress any form of unwanted intrusion. It was a wonderful sight to behold. Continue reading How the Independence of Nigeria was Celebrated on Saturday, 1st of October, 1960 [With Videos]

Ila– Yoruba Tribal Mark

Yoruba Tribal Mark

Hundreds of years ago, the drawing of Ila (tribal/facial mark) was a common practice among the Yoruba tribe of Western Nigeria. Ila are special marks drawn on the face or body of an individual shortly after birth or during childhood. Those who have this marks are refered to as Okola. Continue reading Ila– Yoruba Tribal Mark

States in Nigeria and their Slogans

States in Nigeria

Here is a list of the 36 states in Nigeria and their slogans

STATESLOGAN

Abia State – God’s Own State

Adamawa State – Land of Beauty

Akwa Ibom State – Land of Promise

Anambra State – Light of the Nation Continue reading States in Nigeria and their Slogans

Mobile Networks in Nigeria and their Prefixes

mobile networks in nigeraIt should be noted that these prefixes cannot be wholly relied on anymore since Nigeria, in 2013, implemented the Mobile Number Portability (MNP) which can make mobile telephone users keep their telephone numbers when changing from one network provider to another. Continue reading Mobile Networks in Nigeria and their Prefixes

The Egba- Dahomey War (1851-1864)

Dahomen Women Warriors
Dahomen Women Warriors (Amazon Women)

The Egba-Dahomey war, as the name suggests, was a war that broke out between the two neighboring kingdoms of Egba and Dahomey (now the Republic of Benin) over territorial expansion caused by the quest of the latter to stabilize her economy. The Egba-Dahomey war was the third of the destructive wars that plagued the Yoruba nation in the nineteenth century, proceeding the Owu-Ife war: 1821-1828; and the 1840 Osogbo war. Continue reading The Egba- Dahomey War (1851-1864)

Obudu Cattle Ranch/ Mountain Resort

obudu cattle ranch

Obudu Cattle Ranch/ Mountain Resort is located in Cross River state, along the Nigeria-Cameroon border in the south-eastern part of Nigeria. The ranch has a lot of tall and wonderful mountains laden with green vegetation which gives it the picture of a country side. Continue reading Obudu Cattle Ranch/ Mountain Resort

Olumo Rock, Abeokuta

olumo rock

Olumo rock, located in the ancient city of Abeokuta, the present capital of Ogun state, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Nigeria. The sedimentary rock which is about 137 metres high had for long stood as the pride of the Egba people who are the main inhabitant of the city of Abeokuta. Abeokuta which literarily means ‘beneath the rock’ was recorded to have gotten its name from the Olumo rock. The rock served as a sanctuary and fortress for the Egba people during the inter-tribal wars that plagued Egbaland and the whole of Yorubaland in the 19th century. Continue reading Olumo Rock, Abeokuta

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

Tafawa Balewa

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa was born in 1912 to Yakubu Dan Zala and Fatima Inna in Bauchi, Nigeria. Tafawa Balewa had his elementary education at a Koranic school in Bauchi and later proceeded to Barewa College where he bagged his teaching certificate. Continue reading Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

Okomu National Park, Edo state

Okomu National Park

Okomu National Park, formally known as Okomu Widelife Sanctuary, is located in Ovia South-West Local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. The Park is the smallest of the seven national parks in Nigeria. The Okomu National Park serves as a good and suitable habitat for many endangered flora and fauna species. Continue reading Okomu National Park, Edo state

The Definitions of Government

Government Studies on OldNaija

 

The Three Definitions Of Government

*Government As An Institution Of The State

Government as an institution of the state can be defined as a “machinery” set up by the state, to keep the state organised, run its affairs and administer its various functions and duties.
The coming together of people to live in a society arouse the need to form a body (government) which will handle the administration of the society. If a state should exist without this kind of body (government), anarchy is said to be reigning in such a state. Continue reading The Definitions of Government

Bori Religion In Hausaland

Bori religious dance
Bori Dancer

Bori is a traditional religion of the Hausa people of northern Nigeria which involves animism, magic and spiritual possession. The Bori religion was widely practiced in the Hausa’s pre-Islamic era but began to wane as Islam was introduced into Hausaland. “Boorii” is a Hausa word for spiritual force which can be found in physical and/or inanimate objects.  Continue reading Bori Religion In Hausaland

Definition And Features of a State



What is a state? Or
What is the definition of a state?

“A state may be defined as a politically organised body of people inhabiting a defined geographical entity with an organized legitimate government”.
(Essential Government, C. C. Dibie, August 2008)

A state must be free from all forms of external control to exercise its sovereignty within its area of jurisdiction. It must be noted that Continue reading Definition And Features of a State

Merits And Demerits of Clifford Constitution of 1922

Click here to read the Clifford Constitution of 1922 and its features

Like every other constitution of a state, the Clifford Constitution has its advantages/merits and disadvantages/demerits.

Here are the merits of Clifford Constitution of 1922
Continue reading Merits And Demerits of Clifford Constitution of 1922

Governors of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)- Past and Present

image

Below is the list of past and present governors of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)

1. R. A. Fetoh 1958-1963

2. Alahji Mai Borno (1963-1967)

3. Dr. Clemet N. Isong (1967-1975)

Continue reading Governors of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)- Past and Present

The Ibadan All-Nigerian Constitutional Conference of 1950

Nigerian Map

On the 9th of January, 1950, delegates from the northern, eastern and western regions of Nigeria met as a body in Ibadan to discuss issues on the new constitution Sir Macpherson was drafting (Macpherson constitution of 1951). Continue reading The Ibadan All-Nigerian Constitutional Conference of 1950

The Richards Constitution of 1946

Constitution Of Nigeria

Governor Bernard Bourdilloun succeeded Sir Hugh Clifford as the Governor General of Nigeria in 1939 and later left the office in 1945. In 1939, while still in power, he turned the Northern and Southern Protectorates into provinces and divided the Southern province into Eastern and Western provinces, while the Northern province remained untouched. Continue reading The Richards Constitution of 1946

Berlin Conference And The Partition of West Africa

Berlin Conference

In the due course to get a share of the African continent, all European nations participating in the struggle to have a colony in Africa had lost their decency and orderliness in the run. The tension and clashes among these competitors was boiling at its hottest degree. It was at that time that Otto Von Bismarck, a German Chancellor, convened a meeting at Berlin (Berlin Conference) with the purpose of resolving the disputes among the competitors without the use of arms. Continue reading Berlin Conference And The Partition of West Africa

Lagos Times and Gold Coast Colony Advertiser

Lagos Times And Gold Coast Advertiser_OldNaija

The Lagos Times and Gold Coast Colony Advertiser was the third newspaper established in Nigeria. It succeeded Anglo African of Robert Campbell and Iwe Irohin of Rev. Henry Townsend. The newspaper was established on Wednesday, 10th November, 1880 by Mr. Richard Olamilege Beale Blaize and was edited by Mr. Andrew M. Thomas and Mojola Agbebi. Continue reading Lagos Times and Gold Coast Colony Advertiser

Telephone Conversation Between President John F Kennedy and Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa On August 23, 1963

John F Kennedy conversation with Tafawa Balewa

John F Kennedy conversation with Tafawa Balewa

(John F Kennedy and Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa’s Phone Conversation in Text)

On Friday, August 23, 1963, the American President, John F Kennedy, made a phone call to the Nigerian Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, via the Syncom Communications Satellite . The conversation lasted for 2 minutes and 19 seconds. In the conversation, the two leaders exchanged pleasantries and talked about the boxing match in which the Nigerian middle weight boxer, Dick Tiger, defeated America’s Gene Fulmer. This conversation symbolises the long time intimacy that exist between the United States of America and Nigeria.

Here is the real conversation in written form (real audio form below)

PRIME MINISTER: We congratulate you heartily Mr President for this very big achievement.

PRESIDENT KENNEDY: I hope we will be seeing you back in the United States and that all goes well for your country and your people.

PRIME MINISTER: Thank you.

PRESIDENT KENNEDY: Very good wishes Prime Minister and we look forward to having Dick Tiger come over here.

PRIME MINISTER: It was indeed a very great day for us when Dick Tiger beat the American, Gene Fulmer.

PRESIDENT KENNEDY: I know we watch those things over here. Well, we wish you good luck, regards from the people of the United States to the people of Nigeria

PRIME MINISTER: Mr. President, I would be very happy if you would convey our greetings and all the best wishes to the people of United States.

PRESIDENT KENNEDY: Thank you, Prime Minister, and we look forward to seeing you back at the White House again someday.

PRIME MINISTER: It is my intention to visit the United States very soon, Mr. President.

PRESIDENT KENNEDY: Good. Thank you, Mr. Prime Minister, and good bye.

Here is the audio recording of the conversation

http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKWHA-211-003.aspx#.T16zClJnoBU.facebook

Image, text and the audio was provided by the JKF Library: Conversation with Prime Minister Balewa of Nigeria via Syncom satellite, 23 August 1963

Baby Kilode By Dizzy K Falola (1983)

Watch Baby Kilode Video Here

Listen to Baby Kilode Audio Here

Download Baby Kilode Audio Here

Baby Kilode (Baby, what is wrong) is a popular Nigerian pop song sang in the 80s by the Falsetto King, Dizzy K Falola born Kunle Falola. The heavy disco song was released in 1983 and included in the album “Be My Friend”. Dizzy K Falola was known to have taken after the style of the King of Pop, Michael Jackson, in his music career. Dizzy K Falola sang many other songs such as Excuse Me Baby, Take It To The DJ, Be My Friend, but Baby Kilode still remain his biggest hit. The song sent people dancing wild on the streets, in clubs, parties and musical concerts throughout the 1980s in Nigeria.

Osun Osogbo Festival (Video)

Osun Osogbo is a festival celebrated annually in Osogbo land, Osun State, in the month of August. The Osun goddess is believed to symbolise wealth, fertility, beauty, prosperity and love. Below is a video of the festival….

Durbar Festival In Nigeria (Video)

Durbar Festival is an annual festival celebrated in different northern cities of Nigeria such as Katsina, Bida and Kano. It is celebrated at the end of Muslim festivals Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. Below is a video of the celebration of the festival.